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Fig. 1 | Molecular Medicine

Fig. 1

From: TNF-α Opens a Paracellular Route for HIV-1 Invasion across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Fig. 1

Blood-brain-barrier model

(A) Design of the bilayer model with brain neural microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC), fibronectin or collagen I-fibronectin matrix, membrane, and astrocytes. (B, C) Transmission electron microscopy of a vertical cross section across the endothelial layer showing cells in close apposition (×3000 and ×6800, respectively). (D) Fusion of cell membranes between adjoining cells resembling zonula adhaerens (×22,000).

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