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Fig. 4 | Molecular Medicine

Fig. 4

From: TNF-α Opens a Paracellular Route for HIV-1 Invasion across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Fig. 4

TNF-α enhances HIV-1 penetration across the BBB model in a dose-responsive fashion

BBB models (constructed with pediatric endothelial cells on collagen I-fibronectin matrix) were treated with DME-S without or with TNF-α (0 to 100 ng/ml) for 2 hr prior to and during the whole experiment. HIV-1 (2.1 ng) was placed in the upper chamber and samples (50 µL) were removed from the lower chamber at 18-hr (diamonds) and 66-hr (squares) intervals and measured by infectious virus assay. The relationship between log TNF-α and log p24 antigen concentration was significant by ANOVA (p = 0.042, F = 2.747).

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