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Table 2 The status of the various factors in relation to the spectrum of NE tumors

From: Genetic and Molecular Coordinates of Neuroendocrine Lung Tumors, with Emphasis on Small-cell Lung Carcinomas

Factors Status in the Spectrum of Aggressiveness (from TCs to SCLC) References
Aneuploidy Increasing 133,120
Bak Highly expressed in carcinoids 126
Bax Decreasing 23,112,124
Bcl-2 Increasing (decrease in metastatic SCLCs) 23,112,124
BCL-X Expressed in TCs 127
c-ets-1 Highly expressed in high-grade NE tumors 179
CD44S Decreasing 100
CD44v6 Its loss is associated with aggressivity 100
CD99 Expressed only in TCs 102104
Ki-67 labeling Increasing 114,193,194
MCL-1 Highly expressed in carcinoids 126
PAI-1 Increasing 188
PAI-2 Decreasing 188
p53 Increasing 60,100,126
Rb Decreasing 11,38,58,134,135, 143145,148152
Topo II α Increasing (although there are no reports for LCLCs) 254,263,266
u-PA Increasing 187,188
  1. Abbreviations: SCLC, small-cell lung cancer; TC, typical carcinoids; LCLC, large-cell lung carcinoma.