Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines after a 30% TBSA thermal injury. (a) Serum TNF increased approximately 7-fold after thermal trauma and decreased over time. Insulin prevented an increase of serum TNF on days 1 and 2 postinjury when compared with saline (p < 0.05). (b) Serum IL-1β increased after burn and remained elevated during the study period. Insulin decreased serum IL-1β concentration on days 1, 5, and 7 after trauma when compared with animals receiving saline (p < 0.05). (c) Serum IL-6 increased 300-fold immediately after burn trauma and remained elevated even after 7 days. Insulin significantly decreased serum IL-6 concentrations 1 day after burn compared to saline (p < 0.05). (d) MIF was found to be increased immediately after burn, but further increased over the study period by almost 100% in the saline control group. Insulin significantly decreased serum MIF 5 and 7 days after trauma (p < 0.05).*Significant difference between insulin and control (p < 0.05). Data are presented as means ± SEM.