Skip to main content

Table 1 Proteins required for the autophagy and Cvt pathways

From: The Molecular Mechanism of Autophagy

Protein Characteristics
Cargo selection and tethering  
Cvt9 Cvt pathway-specific; coiled-coil protein, required to bring prApe1-Cvt19 to the preautophagosomal structure, interacts with Apg1
Cvt19 Cvt pathway-specific; receptor for prApe1
VFT Cvt pathway-specific; composed of Vps51, Vps52, Vps53 and Vps54. Tethering complex for endosome to late Golgi trafficking; required for localizing prApe1-Cvt19-Cvt9 to the PAS
Tlg2 Cvt pathway-specific; syntaxin homologue
Vps45 Cvt pathway-specific; Sec1 homologue
Vesicle formation/completion  
PtdIns 3-kinase complex  
Apg6/Vps30 Required for both PtdIns 3-kinase complexes; forms a complex with Vps34 and Vps15 and either Apg14 or Vps38
Apg14/Cvt12 Forms complex with Apg6, Vps34 and Vps15
Vps34 PtdIns 3-kinase
Vps15 Protein kinase required for Vps34 function
Conjugation systems  
Apg5 Conjugated with Apg12
Apg7/Cvt2 E1-like activation enzyme for both Apg12 and Aut7
Aut7/Apg8/Cvt5 Ubiquitin-like modifier, conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), regulates autophagosome size, needed for Cvt vesicle formation
Apg10 E2 protein conjugating enzyme for Apg12-Apg5
Apg12 Ubiquitin-like modifier, forms Apg12-Apg5 conjugate
Apg16 Coiled-coil protein that binds Apg12-Apg5 conjugate
Aut1/Apg3 E2 protein conjugating enzyme for Aut7-PE
Aut2/Apg4 Cysteine protease processes Aut7 and Aut7-PE
Regulatory machinery  
Apg1/Aut3/Cvt10 Serine/threonine kinase; interacts with Apg13
Apg13 Autophagy-specific; phosphoprotein that is dephosphorylated under starvation conditions and interacts with Apg1
Apg17 Autophagy-specific; interacts with Apg1, Cvt13 and Cvt20
Cvt13 Cvt pathway-specific; forms a complex with Cvt20 and Apg1
Cvt18 Localized to the vacuole and perivacuolar compartment
Cvt20 Cvt pathway-specific; forms a complex with Cvt13 and Apg17
Vac8 Cvt pathway-specific; armadillo repeat protein, involved in vacuole inheritance, and nucleus-vacuole
  junctions, interacts with Apg13
Apg9 complex  
Apg2 Interacts with Apg9
Apg9/Aut9/Cvt7 Integral membrane protein, interacts with Apg2
Early Sec pathway  
Sec12 Autophagy-specific; required for recruitment of Sar1 and vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum
Sec16 Autophagy-specific; vesicle coat protein that interacts with Sec23
Sec23 Autophagy-specific; GTPase-activating protein
Sec24 Autophagy specific; vesicle coat component that interacts with Sec23
Docking and fusion  
Vam3 Syntaxin homologue, vacuolar t-SNARE
Vti1 cis-Golgi v-SNARE, also found on vacuole
Vam7 SNAP-25 homologue, vacuolar t-SNARE
HOPS Class C Vps complex composed of Vps11, 16, 18, 33, 39, and 41
Ccz1 Forms a complex with Mon1, interacts with Ypt7
Mon1 Forms a complex with Ccz1
Ypt7 Rab GTPase
Sec18 ATPase, yeast NSF
Sec17 α-SNAP
Vesicle breakdown  
Cvt17/Aut5 Integral membrane protein, a putative lipase
Aut4 Integral membrane protein, a permease homologue
Pep4 Vacuolar proteinase A
Prb1/Cvt1 Vacuolar proteinase B