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Table 2 Effect of radiation on the invasion of cancer cells in Matrigel-coated two-compartment chambers in vitro

From: Effects of radiation on the metastatic process

Cancer cells   Radiation   Invasion Molecular Inhibitor Ref
Origin Code Mode Dose IR/Ctrl    
Glioblastoma U87MG; LN-18; LN-229 137Cs 6 Gy 5; 3; 3.7 MMP; BcL-2   (Wild-Bode et al., 2001)
  LN-229; U87MG 137Cs 6 Gy 1.5; 1.7 αvβ3 integrin temozolomide (Wick et al., 2002)
  A-172; U-138 240 kV 8 Gy 0.07; 1    (Cordes et al., 2003)
  U251; U373; LN18; LN428 137Cs 5 Gy 1.5; 1 EGFR/Src   (Park et al., 2006a)
  UN3; GM2 nm 6 Gy 2.2; 2.2 IGF-1/Rho   (Zhai et al., 2006a)
  U87 MV 3 Gy 1.7 Wnt/βCTN XAV939 (Dong et al., 2015a)
  U251 200 kV 10 Gy 1.3 MMP/TIMP Paputilone (Furmanova-Hollenstein et al., 2013)
  C6L* 137Cs 3 Gy 2 EMT markers   (Park et al., 2012)
Meduloblastoma DA0Y; D283 RS 2000 7 Gy 1.5; 1.5 uPAR; β1/FAK   (Nalla et al., 2010)
Neuroblastoma SH-EP; SK-N-SH; SH-SY5Y; SK-N-AS; NLF 200 kV 6 Gy 4; 2.5; 4; 1; 1 HGF/Met   (Schweigerer et al., 2005)
Meningioma IOMM-Lee 150 kV 5 Gy 1.8 uPAR   (Kargiotis et al., 2008)
Pancreatic Ca Panc-1; Suit-2; Hs766T 137Cs 10 Gy 2.0; 1.6; 1 MMP-2 CGS27023A (Qian et al., 2002)
  Panc-1; AsPC-1; Suit-2 137Cs 10 Gy 1.5; 1.3; 1.4 HGF/Met NK4 (Qian et al., 2003)
  PANC-1; AsPC-1; BxPC-3; MIAPaCa-2 C-ion 2 Gy 4; 0.5; 0.3; 0.1 MMP2 GM6001 (Fujita et al., 2012)
  PANC-1 C-ion 2 Gy 2.5 NO/PI3K Table 1 (Fujita et al., 2014a)
  AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2 C-ion 2 Gy 0.01 Rac1/RhoA   (Fujita et al., 2015a)
  MIA-PaCa; PANC-1 X-ray 4 Gy 3; 1.6 MMP-2 GM6001 (Fujita et al., 2011)
Lung SCC EBC-1 C-ion 2 Gy 0.6    (Akino et al., 2009)
  EBC-1 4MV 2 Gy 1.2    (Akino et al., 2009)
Lung Adenoca A549 C-ion 2 Gy 0.4 ANLN   (Akino et al., 2009)
  A459 4 MV 2 Gy 0.5    (Akino et al., 2009)
  A459 137Cs 10 Gy 2.5 Bcl-xl/STAT3   (Ho et al., 2010a)
  A549 C-ion 10 Gy 0.2 PI3K/Akt   (Ogata et al., 2011)
   4 Mv 10 Gy 0.5    
  A549 60Co 2 Gy × 1.5 MMPs   (Zhou et al., 2012)
  A459; H1299 MV 4 Gy 0.7; 0.7 TBK1 MG132 (Liu et al., 2014c)
  A549; HT1299 137Cs 3 × 2 Gy 1.5; 1.5 G-CSF   (Cui et al., 2015a)
  H1299; A459; H460 MV 2 Gy 1.5; 2; 1.2 CXCR4   (Gu et al., 2015a)
  A549 137Cs 10 Gy ×  1.8 EGFR Gefitinib; PPA (Cho et al., 2016a)
  A549; H460 X-ray 4 Gy ×  1.5; ×  1.4 Nrf2/Notch   (Parthymou et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2017)
  LLC-LM* 60Co 7,5 Gy × 3,5 MMP9   (Chou et al., 2012)
Mammary Ca MCF7 60Co 2 Gy ×  1.4 TGF- β   (Zhou et al., 2011a)
  MCF7; SKBR3 137Cs 3 × 2 Gy × 5; 4.3 SRC/PI3K   (Kim et al., 2015)
  MCF7 137Cs 5 Gy × 2 NBS1/HIF-1a   (Kuo et al., 2015a)
  MCF7; MDA-MB-231   5 Gy 1.7 TGF- β Thymoquinone (Rajput et al., 2015a)
  MDA-MB-231   5 Gy × 2    (Vilalta et al., 2014)
  MCF7 137 Cs 2 Gy × 1.6 EMT histamine (Galarza et al., 2016)
  MDA-MB-231, 6 MV 10 Gy × 2 Met PHA665752 (De Bacco et al., 2011a)
  MCF-7 X-ray 20 × 1 Gy ×  5 Snail; twist   (Zhang et al., 2011)
  4 T1* 137Cs 20 Gy × 3.5 GM-CSF   (Vilalta et al., 2014)
Prostatic Ca PC-3; DU145 6 MV 5 × 2 Gy ×2 PI3K/AKT BEZ235 (Chang et al., 2013)
Oral Ca OECM1 137Cs 5 Gy ×  2.4    (Kuo et al., 2015a)
Esophageal. .SCC KYSE-150 150 kV 37 Gy × 1.3 PTEN   (He et al., 2015a)
  TE-9 125 kV 2 Gy 15 TGF- β metformin (Nakayama et al., 2016)
Hepatoma HepG2; Huh7; 60Co 7.5 Gy ×  3 PI3K   (Cheng et al., 2006a)
Colon Ca CaR1; DLD1 100 kV 5 Gy 6.5; 4.3 EMT   (Kawamoto et al., 2012)
  HCT116 137Cs 4 Gy × 1.7 MMP   (Speake et al., 2005)
  HT29 137Cs 5 Gy 2 βCTN/TCF   (Bastos et al., 2014)
Cervical Ca Siha; C33A X-ray 75 Gy × 3; 3 NF-kB p65   (Yan et al., 2013a)
Fibrosarcoma HT180 proton 2 Gy 0.2 MMP-2   (Ogata et al., 2005)
   C-ion 2 Gy 0.2 MMP-2   
   4 MV 2 Gy × 1.6 or 1 MMP-2 GM6001  
  HT1080 137Cs 4 Gy × 1.5 MMP-2 & 9   (Speake et al., 2005)
  HT180 200 kV 2 Gy × 1.5 MMP/TIMP patupilone (Furmanova-Hollenstein et al., 2013)
Melanoma B16* 137Cs 8 Gy × 3 MMP-2 Metastat (Kaliski et al., 2005)
  1. Most cell lines are human, except cell lines marked by an asterisks which are rodent. Inhibitors comprise agents that were used clinically, namely: BEZ235, an imidazoquinolone derivative and an inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR; CGS27023A, a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor and anti-metastatic agent; Gefitinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting EGFR; GM6001, a broad -spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor known as galardin; Histamine, a biogenic amine that targets four (H1–H4) histamine subtypes G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR); Metastat, a chemically modified tetracycline and inhibitor of gelatinase and MMP; Metformin, an anti-diabetic; MG132, a specific proteasome inhibitor; NK4, a four-kringle antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor and an angiogenesis inhibitor; Patupilone, a microtubule stabilizing drug; PHA665752, an ATP-competitive small-molecule inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase c-Met; PPA, Podophyllotoxin acetate, a microtubule inhibitor and a spindle poison; temozolomide, an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug; Thymoquinone, a regulator of NF- kB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Abbreviations: Akt, protein kinase B; ANLN, human homologue of anailin; b1, beta1 integrin subunit, b-CTN, beta-catenin; BcL-2, B-cell lymphoma 2; BclxL, B-cell lymphoma-extra large; C-ion, carbon-ions; Ca, carcinoma; Co, cobalt; Cs, cesium; Ctrl, unirradiated control; CXCR4, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; EMT, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GCSF, granulocyte colony stimulating factor; Gy, gray; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IGF1, insulin-like growth factor-1; Met, tyrosine-protein kinase Met; MMP, matrix metalloproteinases; nm, not mentioned; NO, nitric oxide; Nrf2, Nuclear factor E2 related factor 2; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PPA, Podophyllotoxin acetate; Rho, Ras homolog gene family member; SCC: squamous cell carcinoma; Src,sarcoma family kinase; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TBK1, tank-binding kinase 1; TCF, T-cell factor; TGFb, transforming growth factor beta; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase; TGF-b, transforming growth factor beta; uPAR, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; Wnt, Wingless-related integration site; XAV 939, a selective β-catenin-mediated transcription inhibitor