|Produced by oxidative recombination, chemical cross-linking, and enzymatic digestion of desired antibodies to yield Fab fragments which are then combined via bifunctional reagents to form a heterodimer21,22.||Produced by advanced techniques such as controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE), improvised somatic fusion of two hybridoma cell lines (quadroma), small molecule-antibody conjugation, genetic engineering using molecular cloning technology20.|
|Inability to produce large quantities||Shorter processing time and ability to produce in large-scale.|
|Rapid destruction of murine antibody fragments||Stability and longer half-life.|
|Difficult to purify||> 90% pure|
Examples: MDX-21023 (targeting Her2, and CD 64 or FcyRI which is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and activated neutrophils;|
MDX-447 24(targeting EGFR and CD 64;
HRS-3/49- Targeting CD 30 on Reed Sternberg cells in Hodgkin lymphoma and FcyRIII or CD 16 on natural killer cells and macrophages.
|Examples: Catumaxomab and Solitomab (targeting EpCAM expressed on breast, ovarian and other cancer cells as well as CD3 on T cells-bispecific T cell engager or BiTE)23,26,27; Blinatumomab28(binding to both CD19 on B cell cells and CD3 on T cells).|