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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the AHF cohort (n = 411)

From: Association between admission plasma 2-oxoglutarate levels and short-term outcomes in patients with acute heart failure: a prospective cohort study

  Low group (n = 205) High group (n = 206) p-value
Age, yrs 66.3 (12.0) 63.5 (13.9) 0.027
Sex, male 121 (59.0%) 147 (71.4%) 0.009
Comorbidity
 Current smoking 60 (29.3%) 46 (22.3%) 0.108
 Hypertension 129 (62.9%) 99 (48.1%) 0.002
 Diabetes mellitus 67 (32.7%) 59 (28.6%) 0.374
 COPD 16 (7.8%) 24 (11.7%) 0.188
 Atrial fibrillation 55 (26.8%) 70 (34.0%) 0.115
Measurements at admission
 BMI, kg/m2 23.9 (3.8) 24.2 (6.8) 0.684
 HR, bpm 83.6 (17.5) 87.9 (20.8) 0.026
 SBP, mmHg 134.9 (27.1) 125.9 (23.3) < 0.001
 LVEF, % 56.0 (50.0–62.0) 50.5 (39.0–59.0) < 0.001
eGFR,ml/min/1.73 m2 88.2 (64.8–109.8) 86.7 (62.7–106.5) 0.607
 Urea, mmol/L 6.3 (5.2–9.1) 6.8 (5.3–9.8) 0.198
 UA, μmol/L 405.0 (319.0–489.0) 435.0 (371.2–562.0) < 0.001
 ALB, g/L a (202) 38.7 (5.0) (204) 38.8 (5.2) 0.840
 TBil, μmol/L (202) 8.9 (5.7–12.3) (204) 12.6 (8.1–18.5) < 0.001
 ALT, IU/L (200) 17.0 (12.0–24.2) (204) 24.5 (16.0–47.0) < 0.001
 LDL-C, mmol/L (193) 2.5 (1.9–3.4) (191) 2.6 (2.0–3.3) 0.372
 HDL-C, mmol/L (193) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) (191) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.963
 CRP, mg/L (177) 3.9 (1.3–12.0) (192) 6.1 (1.8–18.4) 0.725
 Hb, mg/L (204) 124.6 (22.6) (205) 128.7 (23.0) 0.072
NT-proBNP, pg/ml 1257.0 (507.1–3022.0) 2353.5 (841.1–5220.0) 0.008
 2OG, μg/ml 4.8 (4.2–5.4) 8.1 (6.7–11.2) < 0.001
NYHA class < 0.001
 II 121 (59.0%) 79 (38.3%)  
 III 56 (27.3%) 80 (38.8%)  
 IV 28 (13.7%) 47 (22.8%)  
HF etiology 0.001
 Ischemic 108 (52.7%) 91 (44.2%)  
 Hypertension 32 (15.6%) 16 (7.8%)  
 DCM 16 (7.8%) 34 (16.5%)  
 Others 49 (23.9%) 65 (31.6%)  
Type of HF < 0.001
 HFrEF 24 (11.7%) 55 (26.7%)  
 HFmEF 26 (12.7%) 40 (19.4%)  
 HFpEF 155 (75.6%) 111 (53.9%)  
Bacterial infections 21 (16.0%) 36 (22.1%) 0.192
Medications at discharge
 ACEIs/ARBs 91 (44.4%) 79 (38.3%) 0.214
 Beta-blockers 125 (61.0%) 112 (54.4%) 0.175
 MRA 80 (39.0%) 112 (54.4%) 0.002
 Loop diuretics 89 (43.4%) 126 (61.2%) < 0.001
 Statins 154 (75.1%) 136 (66.0%) 0.043
Outcome
 Primary outcome 26 (12.7%) 50 (21.4%) 0.002
 All-cause mortality 8 (3.9%) 17 (8.3%) 0.065
  1. The AHF cohort was divided into two groups according to the median 2OG levels (μg/ml): the low group (< 6.0, n = 205) and the high group (≥6.0, n = 206). Continuous variables are presented as the mean (SD) or the median with the IQRs (25th, 75th percentiles). Categorical variables are presented as counts and percentiles
  2. Abbreviations: HF heart failure, AHF acute heart failure, 2OG 2-Oxoglutarate, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI body mass index, HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, UA uric acid, NYHA New York Heart Association, ALB albumin, TBil total bilirubin, ALT alanine aminotransferase, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CRP C-reaction protein, Hb hemoglobin, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, DCM dilated cardiomyopathy, HFrEF HF with reduced ejection fraction, HFmEF HF with mid-range ejection fraction, HFpEF HF with preserved ejection fraction, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid/aldosterone receptor antagonist. a: the remain valid data regardless of the missing ones