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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of several antibodies against hRSV-infection

From: Antibody development for preventing the human respiratory syncytial virus pathology

NameTarget/TypeAdvantagesDisadvantagesReference
IVIG-hRSVNon-specific protein target /polyclonal antibodies-First therapy accepted by the FDA for human use.
-Widely used treatment in the absence of other specific therapies
-Does not induce immunological memory.
-High and recurrent doses are required to promote protection.
(Anderson et al. 1986; Groothuis et al. 1993; Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) PREVENT study group 1997)
131-2GG protein/ monoclonal antibody-It is able to confer protection prior to or after hRSV-infection.
-Triggers activated IFN-γ+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
-Widely used to identify an hRSV infection in laboratory assays.
-Recognizes a very conserved epitope associated with the binding to its receptor.
-Does not induce immunological memory.
-Not accepted by the FDA for human use.
-Only approved in animal models.
(Tripp et al. 2001; Tripp et al. 2003; Radu et al. 2010; Miao et al. 2009; Haynes et al. 2009; Boyoglu-Barnum et al. 2014; Caidi et al. 2012; YOUNG 2002)
Palivizumab
(MEDI 493)
F protein/ monoclonal antibody-Decreases over 50% of neonatal hRSV-infection.
-Accepted by the FDA for human use.
-It is the only treatment used in humans nowadays.
-Prevents the entry of the virus into the cell.
-Does not induce immunological memory.
-At least 3 to 5 doses are necessary.
-High cost (US$1416 dose of 100 mg/mL).
-Difficult access for the high-risk population.
(Johnson et al. 1997; Subramanian et al. 1998; Sáez-Llorens et al. 1998; DeVincenzo et al. 2007; Village 1998; B. R. 2018; Torchin et al. 2018; Ambrose et al. 2014; Mochizuki et al. 2017; Lacaze-Masmonteil et al. 2003; Wu et al. 2007)
Motavizumab
(MEDI 524)
F protein/ monoclonal antibody-Decreases over 50% of neonatal infection.
-Has higher affinity than palivizumab for its antigen.
-Promotes a better protective effect than palivizumab.
-Prevents the entry of the virus into the cell.
-Does not induce immunological memory.
-At least 3 to 5 doses are necessary.
-Not accepted by the FDA for human use.
-Produces cutaneous lesions in human.
(Wu et al. 2008; Mejías et al. 2005; Huang et al. 2010; Fernández et al. 2010; Carbonell-Estrany et al. 2010; O’Brien et al. 2015; Ramilo et al. 2014; Mak et al. 2014)
Monoclonal anti-NN protein/ monoclonal antibody-High specificity in clinical samples from nasopharyngeal swabs from hRSV-infected patients.
- May induce ADCC and complement fixed in infected cells.
- N-hRSV protein migrates to the membrane of infected cells.
- The evaluation of this antibody is in experimental process in murine model(Anderson et al. 1988; Aliprantis et al. 2018)