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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and biomarker measures

From: Key role of MIF-related neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

  Controls (n = 14) AD (n = 19)
Age (years), mean (SD) 70.5 (4.1) 69.7 (4.6)
Gender, No. (%) of males 5 (35.7%) 10 (52.6%)
Education years, mean (SD) 13.1 (2.6) 13.3 (2.5)
MMSE scale, mean (SD) 28.6 (1.8) 23.8 (3.9)*
APOEε4 carriers, No. (%) 2 (14.3%) 9 (47.4%)*
CSF MIF (ng/ml), mean (SD) 0.158 (0.096) 0.270 (0.168)
Plasma MIF (ng/ml), mean (SD) 0.045 (0.077) 0.113 (0.170)
CSF Aβ 1–42 (pg/ml), mean (SD) 990.3 (203.9) 522.8 (134.0)*
CSF tau (pg/ml), mean (SD) 182.1 (44.4) 738.5 (407.9)*
CSF p-tau181 (pg/ml), mean (SD) 42.6 (12.4) 93.9 (35.7)*
  1. MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor, APOEε4 Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination
  2. *statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) from CDR 0, using Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and binomial proportion tests for categorical variables