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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and biomarker measures

From: Key role of MIF-related neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease

 Controls (n = 14)AD (n = 19)
Age (years), mean (SD)70.5 (4.1)69.7 (4.6)
Gender, No. (%) of males5 (35.7%)10 (52.6%)
Education years, mean (SD)13.1 (2.6)13.3 (2.5)
MMSE scale, mean (SD)28.6 (1.8)23.8 (3.9)*
APOEε4 carriers, No. (%)2 (14.3%)9 (47.4%)*
CSF MIF (ng/ml), mean (SD)0.158 (0.096)0.270 (0.168)
Plasma MIF (ng/ml), mean (SD)0.045 (0.077)0.113 (0.170)
CSF Aβ 1–42 (pg/ml), mean (SD)990.3 (203.9)522.8 (134.0)*
CSF tau (pg/ml), mean (SD)182.1 (44.4)738.5 (407.9)*
CSF p-tau181 (pg/ml), mean (SD)42.6 (12.4)93.9 (35.7)*
  1. MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor, APOEε4 Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination
  2. *statistically different (p ≤ 0.05) from CDR 0, using Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and binomial proportion tests for categorical variables