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Table 1 List of studies exploring the effects of tDCS technique on cognitive deficits in PD

From: Modulating brain networks associated with cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease

Author and year Number of subjects Age (y) PD group MMSE Anti-parkinsonian drugs Anatomical target Intensity (mA) Duration (min) Number of sessions Clinical Outcomes
Boggio et al. (2006) 18 61.1 ± 0.0 (MCI) 24.4 ± 3.1 12 h withdrawal L-DLPFC
M1
Sham
1 vs. 2 20 single session Improved working memory after 2 mA tDCS on the L-DLPFC
Pereira et al. (2013) 16 61.5 ± 9.9 (MCI-NC) 27.7 ± 2.1 on L-DLPFC
L-TPC
2 20 single session Improved phonemic fluency task
Doruk et al. (2014) 18 61.0 ± 8.0 (NC) 29.2 ± 0.30 on L-DLPFC
R-DLPFC
sham
2 20 10 sessions in 2 weeks Improved Trail Making Test B and executive function after the end of treatment and at 1-month follow-up
Biundo et al. (2015) 16 71.1 ± 5.8 MCI** n/a on L-DLPFC
sham
2 20 16 sessions in 4 weeks Worsened attention/executive skill and memory index at the post-test, and improved memory index at the follow-up test
Manenti et al. (2016) 20 69.0 ± 0.0 MCI-NC n/a on L-DLPFC
R-DLPFC
sham
2 25 10 sessions in 2 weeks Improved cognitive abilities after the end of treatment and at 3-month follow-up
Manenti et al. (2018) 22 64.0 ± 0.0 MCI-NC n/a on L-DLPFC
sham
2 25 10 sessions in 2 weeks Improved cognitive performances
and reduction of depressive symptoms
Lau et al. (2019) 10 62.7 ± 6.6 (MCI) 26.2 ± 0.40 on L-DLPFC
Sham
2 20 single session No change
  1. L-DLPFC left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, R-DLPFC right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, L-M1 left primary motor cortex, L-TPC left temporo-parietal cortex, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE mini mental state examination, NC normal cognition
  2. Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) total score = 65–81
  3. PD-CRS > 82
  4. **Education = 8.9 ± 3.7, n/a not available. For studies where MCI status was not specifically defined, (MCI) and (NC) has been assigned according to the reported MMSE scores