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Table 1 Schobinger staging of AVMs

From: Oscillatory shear stress promotes angiogenic effects in arteriovenous malformations endothelial cells

Stage Clinical findings
I (Quiescence) Warm, pink-blue, shunting on Doppler
II (Expansion) Enlargement, pulsation, thrill, bruit, tortuous veins
III (Destruction) Dystrophic skin changes, ulceration, bleeding, pain
IV (Decompensation) Cardiac failure
  1. AVMs Arteriovenous malformations