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Table 2 Laboratory findings of survivor and non-survivor COVID-19 patients at ICU admission

From: Syndecan-1, an indicator of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, predicts outcome of patients admitted to an ICU with COVID-19

  Total (N = 49) COVID-19 patients P
Non-survivors (N = 35) Survivors (N = 14)
Tissue and endothelial damage/activation
 Syndecan-1 (ng/mL) 880.3 (504.0–1387.9) (49) 1031.4 (669.7–1901.7) (35) 504.0 (316.0–819.8) (14) 0.002
 Thrombomodulin (ng/mL) 4175.0 (3604.3–5550.9) (49) 4534.0 (3722.5–5858.4) (35) 3780.0 (3326.9–4514.3) (14) 0.070
Inflammation
 IL-1β (pg/mL)↑ 15.8% (3/19) 15.4% (2/13) 16.7% (1/6) 1.000
 IL-2R (U/mL) 1065.5 (493.8–1536) (20) 1284.0 (670.0–1981.0) (13) 1052.0 (359.0–1111.0) (7) 0.183
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 97.7 (12.6–179.0) (25) 139.3 (66.2–294.8) (16) 12.2 (6.1–33.8) (9)  < 0.001
 IL-8 (pg/mL) 51.7 (12.1–93.3) (19) 79.3 (42.5–163.0) (13) 15.7 (9.4–23.4) (6) 0.005
 IL-10 (pg/mL) 9.2 (2.5–20.7) (19) 16.5 (2.5–31.6) (13) 4.3 (2.5–14.8) (6) 0.179
 TNFα (pg/mL) 9.5 (6.2–24.0) (17) 14.5 (2.1–30.5) (11) 7.6 (6.2–9.5) (6) 0.494
Hematologic
 White blood cell count (× 109/L) 10.9 (7.6–17.7) (46) 12.2 (7.9–18.7) (34) 9.5 (6.7–11.1) (12) 0.133
 Neutrophil count (× 109/L) 8.8 (6.1–16.5) (45) 11.3 (6.8–17.8) (34) 6.7 (5.1–8.7) (11) 0.039
 Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 0.5 (0.3–0.8) (47) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) (34) 1.0 (0.5–1.7) (13) 0.012
 Red blood cell count (× 1012/L)↓ 0.0% (0/46) 0.0% (0/34) 0.0% (0/12) NA
 Hemoglobin (g/L)↓ 0.0% (0/47) 0.0% (0/34) 0.0% (0/13) NA
 Hematocrit (%)↓ 0.0% (0/46) 0.0% (0/34) 0.0% (0/12) NA
 Platelet count (× 109/L) 112.5 (55.5–213.5) (46) 75.5 (43.3–141.5) (34) 238.5 (148.8–349.8) (12)  < 0.001
Biochemical  
 Glucose (mmol/L) 9.9 (7.2–12.6) (45) 10.9 (8.4–14.5) (33) 7.8 (6.2–10.3) (12) 0.057
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.1 (2.4–3.5) (46) 2.8 (2.3–3.5) (34) 3.3 (3.1–5.0) (12) 0.027
 HsCRP (mg/L) 79.4 (49.0–186.9) (35) 126.9 (61.9–205.1) (25) 31.6 (7.2–76.6) (10)  < 0.001
 High-sensitive cardiac troponin I (pg/mL)↑ 68.9% (31/45) 75.0% (24/32) 53.8% (7/13) 0.301
 Myoglobin (ng/mL)↑ 48.9% (22/45) 59.4% (19/32) 23.1% (3/13) 0.027
 AST (U/L)↑ 40.0% (18/45) 41.2% (14/34) 36.4% (4/11) 1.000
 LDH (U/L)↑ 93.6% (44/47) 97.1% (33/34) 84.6% (11/13) 0.181
 CK (U/L)↑ 38.1% (8/21) 44.4% (8/18) 0.0% (0/3) 0.409
 CK-MB (ng/mL)↑ 28.9% (13/45) 37.5% (12/32) 7.7% (1/13) 0.102
 NT-proBNP (pg/mL)↑ 84.1% (37/44) 87.1% (27/31) 76.9% (10/13) 0.696
 Ferritin (μg/L)↑ 90.9% (10/11) 100.0% (6/6) 80.0% (4/5) 0.455
Coagulation
 Prothrombin time (second) 15.9 (14.9–18.7) (45) 17.3 (15.7–21.0) (33) 14.2 (13.6–15.7) (12)  < 0.001
 Prothrombin activity (%) 68.5 (51.8–78.0) (44) 59.0 (44.0–71.0) (33) 88.0 (71.0–95.0) (11)  < 0.001
 INR (ratio) 1.3 (1.2–1.6) (44) 1.4 (1.2–1.8) (33) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) (11)  < 0.001
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.9 (3.2–5.3) (45) 3.6 (2.8–5.5) (33) 4.5 (3.6–5.3) (12) 0.495
 APTT (second) 42.6 (38.0–51.9) (45) 42.6 (38.5–54.4) (33) 41.6 (36.5–45.8) (12) 0.303
 Thrombin time (second) 15.5 (14.7–16.8) (45) 15.5 (14.8–17.5) (33) 15.4 (14.6–16.0) (12) 0.470
 D-dimer (μg/mL FEU) 7.1 (2.5–18.6) (44) 13.5 (3.9–21.0) (33) 2.4 (1.2–3.7) (11) 0.002
 Fibrinogen degradation products (μg/mL) 54.7 (13.7–110.9) (19) 56.7 (17.0–150.0) (15) 8.0 (4.0–44.3) (4) 0.027
 Antithrombin (%) 82.0 (69.0–90.0) (23) 82.0 (66.5–87.0) (17) 86.5 (70.8–96.5) (6) 0.392
Other
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.34 (0.10–1.32) (22) 0.52 (0.28–3.12) (13) 0.12 (0.07–0.30) (9) 0.006
 ESR (mm/H)↑ 88.9% (8/9) 75.0% (3/4) 100.0% (5/5) 0.444
 aPLs positive 50.0% (3/6) 50.0% (2/4) 50.0% (1/2) 1.000
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance
  2. Data are presented as median (Q1–Q3) (N) or % (n/N)
  3. COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; AST, aspartate transaminase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; CK, creatine kinase; CK-MB, creatine kinase-myoglobin band; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide; INR, international normalized ratio; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; aPLs, antiphospholipid antibodies