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Table 3 Demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of COVID-19 patients stratified by Syndecan-1 level at ICU admission (cutoff: 813.8 ng/mL)

From: Syndecan-1, an indicator of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, predicts outcome of patients admitted to an ICU with COVID-19

  Syndecan-1 P
High level (N = 27) Low level (N = 22)
Age, years 64.0 (57.0–71.0) (27) 65.5 (56.0–73.0) (22) 0.984
Gender
 Male/female 74.1% (20/27)/25.9% (7/27) 54.5% (12/22)/45.5% (10/22) 0.153
Comorbidities/conditions
 Smoking 11.1% (3/27) 9.1% (2/22) 1.000
 Hypertension 48.1% (13/27) 50.0% (11/22) 0.897
 Diabetes 7.4% (2/27) 27.3% (6/22) 0.138
 Cardiovascular disease 18.5% (5/27) 31.8% (7/22) 0.282
 Cerebrovascular disease 14.8% (4/27) 13.6% (3/22) 1.000
 Chronic lung disease 3.7% (1/27) 4.5% (1/22) 1.000
 Chronic kidney disease 3.7% (1/27) 9.1% (2/22) 0.855
 Chronic liver disease 0.0% (0/27) 4.5% (1/22) 0.449
 Anemia 0.0% (0/27) 9.1% (2/22) 0.196
 Malignancy 3.7% (1/27) 4.5% (1/22) 1.000
 Autoimmune diseases 0.0% (0/27) 4.5% (1/22) 0.449
Symptoms and signs
 Fever 74.1% (20/27) 100.0% (22/22) 0.030
 Fatigue 55.6% (15/27) 54.5% (12/22) 0.944
 Dyspnea 66.7% (18/27) 54.5% (12/22) 0.386
 Cough 74.1% (20/27) 63.6% (14/22) 0.430
 Sputum production 55.6% (15/27) 54.5% (12/22) 0.944
 Pharyngeal pain 18.5% (5/27) 9.1% (2/22) 0.598
 Abdominal pain 29.6% (8/27) 18.2% (4/22) 0.354
 Diarrhea 37.0% (10/27) 22.7% (5/22) 0.280
 Headache 22.2% (6/27) 18.2% (4/22) 1.000
 Dizziness 11.1% (3/27) 4.5% (1/22) 0.756
 Nausea 37.0% (10/27) 18.2% (4/22) 0.146
 Vomiting 33.3% (9/27) 13.6% (3/22) 0.111
 Anorexia 29.6% (8/27) 9.1% (2/22) 0.156
 Myalgia 22.2% (6/27) 18.2% (4/22) 1.000
Disease severity status
 Severe/Critically severe 11.1% (3/27)/88.9% (24/27) 36.4% (8/22)/63.6% (14/22) 0.078
Treatment
 MV 80.8% (21/26) 50.0% (11/22) 0.024
  Invasive MV 100.0% (21/21) 72.7% (8/11) 0.061
  PEEP (cm H2O) 12.0 (10.0–14.0) (21) 13.0 (12.0–14.0) (8) 0.134
  PaCO2 (mmHg) 49.0 (44.0–57.3) (18) 48.9 (42.0–64.5) (10) 0.944
  Oxygenation index (mmHg) 128.3 (87.1–254.5) (17) 136.4 (62.3–303.5) (6) 0.865
  Lactate (mmol/L) 2.1 (1.6–3.1) (10) 2.5 (0.5–3.6) (6) 0.875
Disease outcome
 ICU discharge 11.1% (3/27) 50.0% (11/22) 0.003
  Time from diagnosis to ICU discharge (days) 29.0 (NA) (3) 24.0 (17.0–35.0) (11) 0.582
 Death 88.9% (24/27) 50.0% (11/22) 0.003
  Time from diagnosis to death (days) 17.5 (12.0–24.0) (24) 23.0 (16.0–28.0) (11) 0.405
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance
  2. Data are presented as median (Q1–Q3) (N) or % (n/N). COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019, ICU, intensive care unit; MV, mechanical ventilation; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; PaCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide