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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Increased plasmablasts enhance T cell-mediated beta cell destruction and promote the development of type 1 diabetes

  CON (n = 26) NO-T1D (n = 36) LT-T1D (n = 20) T2D (n = 22) P value
Gender, Men (n)
Age (years) 22.2 ± 9.3 26.1 ± 14.2 27.9 ± 15.3 47.3 ± 12.2a,b,c  < 0.001
  < 18 years, n (%) 10 (38) 12 (33) 6 (30) 0 (0)  
  ≥ 18 years, n (%) 16 (62) 24 (67) 14 (70) 22 (100)  
Onset-age (years) / 26.1 ± 14.3 24.0 ± 15.6 47.1 ± 12.8b,c  < 0.001
Duration (months) / 2.0 ± 2.1 45.8 ± 23.5 1.3 ± 1.3c  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 20.8 ± 2.5 19.5 ± 3.0 20.6 ± 3.3 24.0 ± 2.5a,b,c  < 0.001
DK or DKA (%) 0.0 75.0 55.0 9.1  < 0.001
Family History of Diabetes (%) 30.8 25.0 15.0 54.5 0.033
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 34 ± 3.3 84 ± 31.7 65 ± 26.2 96 ± 31.7  
HbA1c (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 2.9a 8.1 ± 2.4 a 10.9 ± 2.9a,c  < 0.001
FPG (mmol/l) 4.3 ± 0.5 7.4 ± 2.8a 10.1 ± 4.8 a,b 9.5 ± 3.4a,b  < 0.001
2hPG (mmol/l) 4.5 ± 1.3 13.5 ± 4.6a 13.3 ± 3.6 a 15.8 ± 3.6a  < 0.001
FCP (pmol/l) 558.4 (489.2, 719.0) 226.0 (141.4, 323.2)a 32.3 (9.8, 242.3)a 520.4 (348.5, 789.1)b,c  < 0.001
2hCP (pmol/l) 1717 (1321.0, 2261.0) 425.5 (243.2, 795.8)a 82.9 (16.5, 387.0)a 964.9 (747.61782.0)b,c  < 0.001
IAA+ 0 2 3 0  
ICA+ 0 22 5 0  
GADA+ 0 34 13 0  
IA2A+ 0 24 8 0  
No. of autoantibodies
 4   1 1   
 3   15 1   
 2   13 8   
 1   7 5   
  1. Data are n, %, mean ± SD, and median (25th–75th percentile). /, not appropriate. aP < 0.05 vs CON; bP < 0.05 vs NO-T1D; cP < 0.05 vs LT-T1D; NO-T1D, new-onset T1D; LT-T1D, long-term T1D; T2D, type 2 diabetes; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; 2hPG, 2 h postprandial plasma glucose; FCP, fasting C-peptide; 2hCP, 2-h postprandial C-peptide; DK, diabetic ketosis; DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis