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Table 2 Application of molecular hydrogen in ALI caused by various etiological factors

From: Molecular hydrogen is a potential protective agent in the management of acute lung injury

Etiological factors Effect of molecular hydrogen References
Sepsis-induced ALI Inhibits HMGB1 by activating Nrf2/HO-1; improves mitochondrial function; decreases NLRP3 inflammasome through activating autophagy
Inhibits NF-κB; inhibits p38 MAPK; inhibits RhoA; modulates mTOR/TFEB autophagy and PINK1/Parkin mitophagy; activates thioredoxin 1 and decreases tissue factor expression
Xie et al. (2010, 2012), Liang et al. (2012), Li et al. (2015, 2021), Yang et al. (2016), Dong et al. (2018), Chen et al. (2019, 2021), Yu et al. (2019), Fu et al. (2020)
COVID-19 Inhibits MCP-1, IL-6, IL-1β; inhibits NLRP3 pathway, modulates Nrf2 signaling pathway Chen et al. (2019), Niu et al. (2020), Wang et al. (2020)
I/R induced ALI Induces HO-1, inhibits p38 MAPK and NF-κB, decreases IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α; inhibits apoptosis and pyroptosis Kawamura et al. (2010, 2011), Liu et al. (2015b), Zhang et al. (2018), Saito et al. (2020), Zheng et al. (2021a)
HILI Activates Nrf2/HO-1; increases SIRT1; protects AECIIs by modulating related proteins expression and biological processes Kawamura et al. (2013), Sun et al. (2017), Lu et al. (2018)
VILI Reduces inflammatory responses at local and systemic level; increases the early activation of NF-κB Huang et al. (2010, 2011)
Irradiation-induced lung injury Reduces ROS and apoptosis in A549 cells; reduces lung fibrosis Terasaki et al. (2011)
Burn induced ALI Attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation; may modulate SIRT1 Fang et al. (2011), Bai et al. (2015), Qin et al. (2017)
ALI induced by other causes The protective effects are mainly by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis Diao et al. (2016), Hong et al. (2016), Ying et al. (2017), Terasaki et al. (2019)