Effect of oral ITF2357 on LPS-induced circulating cytokines. (A) Mice received ITF2357 by gavage 1 h before intraperitoneal LPS (30 mg/kg). Dose-response of oral ITF2357 on serum TNFα (mean ± SEM) 90 min after LPS is shown. Control mice received an oral dose of water followed by LPS; 6 mice in each group. (B) Using another group of mice, an identical study was performed but blood was obtained 6 h after LPS. Mean ± SEM IFNγ is shown for 6 mice per group. (C) Similar to A and B, mice were pretreated with either dexamethasone (DEX at 10 mg/kg) or increasing doses of oral ITF2357 followed by an intravenous injection of anti-mouse CD3 (10 µg/kg). Serum was obtained 90 min after the anti-CD3 antibody and mean ± SEM TNFα is shown (5 mice per group). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 compared with water vehicle.