Effect of ITF2357 on the secretion of TNFα in LPS-stimulated PBMCs. After an overnight rest, PBMCs were preincubated with increasing concentrations of ITF2357 for 1 h at 37°C, followed by LPS (10 ng/mL) for an additional 20 h. TNFα released into the supernatant was measured, and the percent reduction from LPS only (set at 100%) is indicated on the vertical axis. The data are presented as mean percent change (± SEM) of 6 donors. The dashed line indicates inhibition of 50% of TNFα induced by LPS only. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 from LPS only.