A) Decreased vagus nerve activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. HF power, a measurement of vagus nerve activity, was measured in patients with RA and healthy control subjects. RA patients had significantly decreased vagus nerve activity as compared with control subjects (RA; HF = 38 msec2 [14–80], controls; HF = 288 msec2 [38–364], P < 0.0001); B) Elevated heart rate in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. Heart rates were measured from electrocardiograms in RA patients and control subjects (RA; Heart Rate = 77 beats/min [60–115], Controls; Heart Rate = 68 beats/min [44–83], P = 0.09); C) Elevated respiratory rates in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. Respiratory rates were measured using an abdominal sensor. RA patients; Respiratory Rate = 15 breaths/min (12–17), controls; Respiratory Rate = 12 breaths/min (9–15), (P < 0.001).