Effect of reparixin treatment on neurological deficits after transient (A–C) or permanent (D–F) MCAO. Transient MCAO (panels A-C): reparixin was administered 15 mg/kg, i.v. 2 h after reperfusion (i.e. 3.5 h after MCAO) followed by 2 15 mg/kg s.c. doses at 2 h intervals. Permanent MCAO (panels D–F): reparixin (15 mg/kg) was given 1 h after MCAO followed by 3 15 mg/kg s.c. doses at 2 h intervals. Neurological deficits were evaluated by De Ryck’s (left panels), Bederson’s (middle panels) and foot-fault tests (right panels) starting from 24 h after MCAO. Open circles, vehicle; closed circles, reparixin. For comparison the scores of sham-operated rats are also shown as a thin line. Data are mean ± S.E. of 7 rats. Statistical differences (Mann-Whitney test): *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 vs. saline.