Effect of Reparixin on long-term reactive astrocytosis (GFAP staining) and microglia proliferation (CD11b staining) in transient (A–F) and permanent (G–L) ischemia. Rats were treated with reparixin as follows: transient ischemia, 15 mg/kg, i.v. 2 h after reperfusion (i.e. 3.5 h after MCAO) followed by two 15 mg/kg s.c. doses at 2 h intervals, then 3 times/day on days 2 and 3; permanent ischemia, 15 mg/kg i.v. 1 h after ischemia then s.c. every 2 h, 3 times. Analysis was performed 1 month after ischemia with anti-GFAP (A–C, G–I) or anti-CD11b (D–F, J–L).