Intestinal mucosal injury evaluated by Chiu scoring system in sham-operated animals, vehicle-treated I/R animals, and I/R animals treated with EPO five minutes before ischemia and at the onset of reperfusion. Grading as (0 = normal mucosa, 1 = slight-, 2 = moderate-, 3 = massive subepithelial detachments, 4 = denudes villi, 5 = ulceration). Data are mean ± S.E.M. (n = 5–7 per group). *P < 0.01 vs sham; **P < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated I/R animals (oneway ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-test). Note that there is a significant decrease in the intestinal injury score after treatment with EPO compared with the vehicle treated I/R animals. Sham; intestinal I/R was not induced, I/R; intestinal I/R, EPO + I/R; rHuEPO administered five minutes before ischemia, I + EPO + R; rHuEPO administered onset of reperfusion.