Cytokine expression profile in explanted islet allografts. Mice were grafted with allogeneic islets and graft mRNA expression levels were assessed. Renal tissue (CT, n = 8) was obtained from the opposite pole to islet grafts of non-HD tail-vein-injected animals, to represent background gene expression levels. Graft tissue: PBS (n = 8, PBS administered by HD tail-vein injection, islets grafted 17 d later and grafts explanted at 48 h); pEF-hAAT (n = 8, pEF-hAAT administered by HD tail-vein injection, islets grafted 17 d later and grafts explanted 30–100 d later). The results are presented as arbitrary units (AU) of mean ± SEM normalized to β-actin mRNA expression; *P> 0.05.