C1213 does not inhibit phosphorylation of MAP-kinases or cytokine secretion in primary microglia. (A-B) MAP-kinase western blot: (A) BV-2 cells or (B) primary microglia were treated with the indicated concentrations of CNI-1493 or C1213 1 h prior to LPS treatment (1 µg/mL). Cells were lysed 15 min after LPS treatment and western blot analysis against phospho-p38, phospho-ERK 1/2, phospho-JNK 1/2 and GAPDH was performed. (C-D) Cytokine ELISA: Primary microglia were treated with CNI-1493 (2.5 and 5 µM) or C1213 (2.5, 5 and 30 µM) 1 h prior to LPS treatment (1 µg/ml). The following cytokine concentrations in the media were determined via ELISA analysis: (C) TNF 1 h, (D) IL-6 2 h, and (E) IL-10 7 h after LPS treatment. * p<0.05.