Systemic hypoxia and local kidney hypoxia induced rat kidney lesion. (A) Representative kidney PAS staining of normoxia (n = 8), systemic hypoxia (n = 8), sham (n = 8) and local kidney hypoxia (n = 8) groups. (B) Representative kidney TUNEL staining. (C) TUNEL positive cell quantification in the kidney. The numbers of positive TUNEL stained cells were counted in eight high-power fields. Scale bar = 50 µm. The red arrows indicate typical apoptotic cells. (D) Measurement of rat serum UA, Cr, eGFR levels (n = 8). Data are shown as mean ± SD. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.