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  1. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), has been the world’s driving fatal bacterial contagious disease globally. It continues a public health emergency, and around one-third of the global ...

    Authors: Rasoul Mirzaei, Sajad Babakhani, Parisa Ajorloo, Razieh Heidari Ahmadi, Seyed Reza Hosseini-Fard, Hossein Keyvani, Yaghoub Ahmadyousefi, Ali Teimoori, Farhad Zamani, Sajad Karampoor and Rasoul Yousefimashouf
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:34
  2. Ovarian cancer is characterized by dysbiosis, referred to as oncobiosis in neoplastic diseases. In ovarian cancer, oncobiosis was identified in numerous compartments, including the tumor tissue itself, the upp...

    Authors: Adrienn Sipos, Gyula Ujlaki, Edit Mikó, Eszter Maka, Judit Szabó, Karen Uray, Zoárd Krasznai and Péter Bai
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:33
  3. An estimated 5–10 % of healthy vaccinees lack adequate antibody response following receipt of a standard three-dose hepatitis B vaccination regimen. The cellular mechanisms responsible for poor immunological r...

    Authors: Mingjuan Yin, Yongzhen Xiong, Dongmei Liang, Hao Tang, Qian Hong, Gang Liu, Jinmei Zeng, Tingyu Lian, Jingxiao Huang and Jindong Ni
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:32
  4. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are subject to continuous shear stress due to blood circulation. Mechanical stress due to high shear flow can also cause arteriovenous malformation (AVM) when ECs respond hyper...

    Authors: Jeong Yeop Ryu, Yun Hyun Kim, Joon Seok Lee, Jeong Woo Lee, Eun Jung Oh, Hyun Mi Kim, Seok-Jong Lee, Jongmin Lee, Sang Yub Lee, Seung Huh, Ji Yoon Kim, Saewon Im and Ho Yun Chung
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:31
  5. SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) colorimetric detection is a sensitive and specific point-of-care molecular biology technique used to detect the virus in only 30 m...

    Authors: Bruna de Oliveira Coelho, Heloisa Bruna Soligo Sanchuki, Dalila Luciola Zanette, Jeanine Marie Nardin, Hugo Manuel Paz Morales, Bruna Fornazari, Mateus Nóbrega Aoki and Lucas Blanes
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:30
  6. Alarmins are considered proximal mediators of the immune response after tissue injury. Understanding their biology could pave the way for development of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers in human disease,...

    Authors: Olav Sundnes, William Ottestad, Camilla Schjalm, Peter Lundbäck, Lars la Cour Poulsen, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Guttorm Haraldsen and Torsten Eken
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:29
  7. Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor and remains uniformly fatal, highlighting the dire need for developing effective therapeutics. Significant intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and inadequat...

    Authors: Muhammad Babar Khan, Rosamaria Ruggieri, Eesha Jamil, Nhan L. Tran, Camila Gonzalez, Nancy Mugridge, Steven Gao, Jennifer MacDiarmid, Himanshu Brahmbhatt, Jann N. Sarkaria, John Boockvar and Marc Symons
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:28
  8. Growth factors execute essential biological functions and affect various physiological and pathological processes, including peripheral nerve repair and regeneration. Our previous sequencing data showed that t...

    Authors: Yaxian Wang, Fuchao Zhang, Yunsong Zhang, Qi Shan, Wei Liu, Fengyuan Zhang, Feiyu Zhang and Sheng Yi
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:27
  9. Breast cancer is the most common neoplasia among women in developed countries. The risk factors of breast cancer can be distinguished in modifiable and unmodifiable factors and, among the latter, genetic facto...

    Authors: Maria Santa Rocca, Clara Benna, Elena Goldin, Andrea Di Nisio, Luca De Toni, Ilaria Cosci, Alberto Marchet, Donato Nitti and Carlo Foresta
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:26
  10. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important medical complications of diabetes mellitus. Autophagy is an important mediator of pathological response and plays a critical role in inflammation during t...

    Authors: Kyung-Hyun Kim, Geum-Lan Hong, Da-Young Jung, Shanika Karunasagara, Won-Il Jeong and Ju-Young Jung
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:25
  11. Although the morbidity and mortality rates associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are high, there is still lack of powerful and precise therapeutic options for IPF.

    Authors: Hui Ding, Jinjun Chen, Jingping Qin, Ruhua Chen and Zili Yi
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:22

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Medicine 2021 27:75

  12. Studies have found that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play key roles in cardiovascular diseases. However, the function of circROBO2 in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate t...

    Authors: Tian-ping Chen, Nai-ju Zhang, Hong-ju Wang, Si-gan Hu and Xu Geng
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:21
  13. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) embedded in a bio-compatible matrix has been demonstrated as a promising strategy for the treatment of bone defects. This study was desig...

    Authors: Zhongliu Cao, Yanfeng Wu, Lingling Yu, Lingfeng Zou, Liu Yang, Sijian Lin, Jue Wang, Zhen Yuan and Jianghua Dai
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:20
  14. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be a major complication following liver surgery contributing to post-operative liver dysfunction. Maresin 1 (MaR1), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, has been shown ...

    Authors: Da Tang, Guang Fu, Wenbo Li, Ping Sun, Patricia A. Loughran, Meihong Deng, Melanie J. Scott and Timothy R. Billiar
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:18
  15. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second more common neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence worldwide associated to the population ageing. Despite increasing awareness and significant research advan...

    Authors: Theodora Ntetsika, Paraskevi-Evita Papathoma and Ioanna Markaki
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:17
  16. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18) is an intermediate filament protein of the cytokeratin acidic type I group and is primarily expressed in single-layered or “simple” epithelial tissues and carcinomas of different origin.

    Authors: Anne Menz, Timo Weitbrecht, Natalia Gorbokon, Franziska Büscheck, Andreas M. Luebke, Martina Kluth, Claudia Hube-Magg, Andrea Hinsch, Doris Höflmayer, Sören Weidemann, Christoph Fraune, Katharina Möller, Christian Bernreuther, Patrick Lebok, Till Clauditz, Guido Sauter…
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:16
  17. Cyclin-dependent kinases 2/4/6 (CDK2/4/6) play critical roles in cell cycle progression, and their deregulations are hallmarks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Authors: Ying Zhu, Kun-Bin Ke, Zhong-Kun Xia, Hong-Jian Li, Rong Su, Chao Dong, Feng-Mei Zhou, Lin Wang, Rong Chen, Shi-Guo Wu, Hui Zhao, Peng Gu, Kwong-Sak Leung, Man-Hon Wong, Gang Lu, Jian-Ying Zhang…
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:15
  18. Myocardial ischemia is the most common form of cardiovascular disease and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding the mechanisms is very crucial for the development of effective therapy. Th...

    Authors: Hui-Yong Chen, Ze-Zhou Xiao, Xiao Ling, Rong-Ning Xu, Peng Zhu and Shao-Yi Zheng
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:14
  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for congenital heart defects. The article aimed to investigate the expression and roles of MST1, YAP1, Last1/2 and Survivin in modulating HG-induced cardiomyocyte...

    Authors: Dongmei Su, Yanhua Li, Lina Guan, Qian Li, Cuige Shi, Xu Ma and Yonghui Song
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:13
  20. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disorder, leading to joint malfunction and disability. Although the incidence of OA is increasing globally, the treatment of OA is very limited. LncRNA CIR has ...

    Authors: Feng Liu, De-Ye Song, Jun Huang, Hong-Qi Yang, Di You and Jiang-Dong Ni
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:12
  21. House dust mite (HDM) inhalation can cause airway epithelial damage which is implicated in the process of airway inflammation in asthma. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is critically required for cellular da...

    Authors: Meixuan Liu, Jingjing Lu, Qian Zhang, Yunxuan Zhang and Zhongliang Guo
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:11
  22. LncRNA can regulate gene at various levels such as apparent genetics, alternative splicing, and regulation of mRNA degradation. However, the molecular mechanism of LncRNA in cholangiocarcinoma is still unclear...

    Authors: Hao Ji, Juan Wang, Binbin Lu, Juan Li, Jing Zhou, Li Wang, Shufen Xu, Peng Peng, Xuezhen Hu and Keming Wang
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:10
  23. Reprogrammed glucose metabolism of enhanced Warburg effect (or aerobic glycolysis) is considered as a hallmark of cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been certified to play a crucial role in tumor prog...

    Authors: Peng Deng, Kai Li, Feng Gu, Tao Zhang, Wenyan Zhao, Ming Sun and Bin Hou
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:9
  24. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease. Previous study has reported that caspase-1/IL-1β is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease. However, the biological role of caspase-1/IL-1β in Alzheimer...

    Authors: Xunhu Gu, Hanjun Wu, Yuqin Xie, Lijun Xu, Xu Liu and Wei Wang
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:8
  25. Malignant glioma exerts a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOs) to aerobic glycolysis, with suppressed mitochondrial functions. This phenomenon offers a proliferation advantage to tumor cells...

    Authors: Qiuyun Yuan, Wanchun Yang, Shuxin Zhang, Tengfei Li, Mingrong Zuo, Xingwang Zhou, Junhong Li, Mao Li, Xiaoqiang Xia, Mina Chen and Yanhui Liu
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:7
  26. Clinical data suggest that BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) are strongly interconnected phenotypes; however, the genetic basis of the latter is rather unclear. Here we aim to find genes and genetic varian...

    Authors: Agnieszka H. Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Michał T. Seweryn, Przemysław Kapusta, Ewelina Pitera, Urszula Mantaj, Katarzyna Cyganek, Paweł Gutaj, Łucja Dobrucka, Ewa Wender-Ożegowska, Maciej T. Małecki and Paweł P. Wołkow
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:6
  27. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with articular cartilage destruction, subchondral bone alterations, synovitis, and even joint deformity and the loss of joint function. ...

    Authors: Jinshuo Tang, Tong Liu, Xinggui Wen, Zhongsheng Zhou, Jingtong Yan, Jianpeng Gao and Jianlin Zuo
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:5
  28. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a common cognitive disorder caused by cerebrovascular disease, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Studies have shown that aerobic exercise might alleviat...

    Authors: Yali Niu, Chunxiao Wan, Jing Zhang, Shu Zhang, Zilong Zhao, Leshan Zhu, Xiaodong Wang, Xiaodong Ren, Jing Wang and Ping Lei
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:4
  29. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased risks for complications before, during, and after birth, in addition to risk of disease through to adulthood. Although placental insufficiency, failu...

    Authors: Giulia F. Del Gobbo, Yue Yin, Sanaa Choufani, Emma A. Butcher, John Wei, Evica Rajcan-Separovic, Hayley Bos, Peter von Dadelszen, Rosanna Weksberg, Wendy P. Robinson and Ryan K. C. Yuen
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:3
  30. Although large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) is the most common type of cerebral infarction, non-LAA is not uncommon. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prognosis of patients with non-LAA and to es...

    Authors: Ya-Ying Zeng, Wen-Bo Zhang, Lin Cheng, Li Wang, Dan-Dan Geng, Wen-Jie Tang, Jin-Cai He and Bin-Bin Deng
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2021 27:2
  31. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail:

    Authors: Huan Yang, Peter Lundbäck, Lars Ottosson, Helena Erlandsson-Harris, Emilie Venereau, Marco E. Bianchi, Yousef Al-Abed, Ulf Andersson, Kevin J. Tracey and Daniel J. Antoine
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:133

    The original article was published in Molecular Medicine 2011 18:Art13

  32. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail:

    Authors: Ravikumar A. Sitapara, Daniel J. Antoine, Lokesh Sharma, Vivek S. Patel, Charles R. Ashby Jr, Samir Gorasiya, Huan Yang, Michelle Zur and Lin L. Mantell
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:132

    The original article was published in Molecular Medicine 2014 20:Art25

  33. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail:

    Authors: Karin Palmblad, Hanna Schierbeck, Erik Sundberg, Anna-Carin Horne, Helena Erlandsson Harris, Jan-Inge Henter, Daniel J. Antoine and Ulf Andersson
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:131

    The original article was published in Molecular Medicine 2014 20:Art57

  34. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail:

    Authors: Daniel James Antoine, Dominic P. Williams, Anja Kipar, Hugh Laverty and B. Kevin Park
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:130

    The original article was published in Molecular Medicine 2010 16:Art4

  35. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ahlam Fatmi, Sid Ahmed Rebiahi, Nafissa Chabni, Hanane Zerrouki, Hafsa Azzaoui, Yamina Elhabiri, Souheila Benmansour, José Santiago Ibáñez-Cabellos, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Smahi, Mourad Aribi, José Luis García-Giménez and Federico V. Pallardó
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:129

    The original article was published in Molecular Medicine 2020 26:94

  36. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited chronic kidney disorder (CKD) that is characterized by the development of numerous fluid-filled cysts in kidneys. It is caused either due to...

    Authors: Aryendu Kumar Saini, Rakesh Saini and Shubham Singh
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:128
  37. Innervation of adipose tissue is essential for the proper function of this critical metabolic organ. Numerous surgical and chemical denervation studies have demonstrated how maintenance of brain-adipose commun...

    Authors: Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Elizabeth Wood, Sigi Koizar, Jake Willows, Ryan Anderson, Yu-Hua Tseng, James Godwin and Kristy L. Townsend
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:126
  38. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant primary cancer with high mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in the biological processes of cancers,...

    Authors: Li Wang, Na Zhou, Jialin Qu, Man Jiang and Xiaochun Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:125
  39. Age-related cataract (ARC) is a serious visual impairment disease, and its pathogenesis is unclear. This article aims to investigate the role of ROCK1 in the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells (LECs) in age-re...

    Authors: Shanshan Hu, Dongmei Su, Lei Sun, Zhongying Wang, Lina Guan, Shanhe Liu, Baowen Zhao, Yong Liu, Cuige Shi, Jianbo Yu and Xu Ma
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:124
  40. FINCA disease is a pediatric cerebropulmonary disease caused by variants in the NHL repeat-containing 2 (NHLRC2) gene. Neurological symptoms are among the first manifestations of FINCA disease, but the consequenc...

    Authors: Anniina E. Hiltunen, Salla M. Kangas, Steffen Ohlmeier, Ilkka Pietilä, Jori Hiltunen, Heikki Tanila, Colin McKerlie, Subashika Govindan, Hannu Tuominen, Riitta Kaarteenaho, Mikko Hallman, Johanna Uusimaa and Reetta Hinttala
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:123
  41. As a common ocular complication of diabetes mellitus, diabetic cataract is becoming a leading cause of visual impairment. The progression of diabetic cataract progression involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal tra...

    Authors: Xin Liu, Qiaoyun Gong, Longfei Yang, Min Liu, Lingzhi Niu and Lufei Wang
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:122
  42. Neonatal sepsis and the associated myocardial dysfunction remain a leading cause of infant mortality. Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) acts as a ligand of triggering receptor expressed ...

    Authors: Naomi-Liza Denning, Monowar Aziz, Li Diao, Jose M. Prince and Ping Wang
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:121
  43. At present, the early diagnosis of femoral head necrosis mainly relies on Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and most early patients are difficult to make an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, to investigate the ea...

    Authors: Xiaolong Wang, Jianbo Li, Da Man, Rui Liu and Jianmin Zhao
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:120
  44. Increasing number of studies provide evidence that the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) dampens inflammation in peripheral visceral organs. However, the effects of afferent fibers of the vagus nerve (AFVN) on ant...

    Authors: Byung Gon Jo, Seung-Hyung Kim and Uk Namgung
    Citation: Molecular Medicine 2020 26:119

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