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Table 1 Strategies of specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease

From: Antigen-Specific Therapy for Autoimmune Disease: Prospects for the Prevention of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes

Strategy Target Modality Efficacy in Experimental Animal Models Clinical Trials in Humans
Antigen-induced tolerance T cells (effector or regulatory) Protein antigen or peptide epitope   
   Via tolerising route   
   Transmucosal Yes Yes
   Transdermal Yes No
   In modified form   
   Soluble excess Yes No
   Soluble peptide-MHC Yes No
   With blockade of “second signal” Yes No
   “Altered peptide ligand” Yes No
MHC blockade T cells (effector or regulatory) Anti-MHC mAb Yes No
   Anti-MHC-peptide mAb Yes No
   MHC antagonist peptide Yes No
TCR blockade Effector T cells Anti-Vβ mAbs Yes No
T cell vaccination Effector T cells Autoreactive T cell, TCR, or TCR peptide Yes Yes
  1. MHC, major histocompatibility complex; mAb, monoclonal antibody; TCR, T cell receptor; Vβ, variable region of TCR β-chain.