Serum anti-inflammatory cytokines after trauma. (a) Serum IL-2 concentrations were significantly increased after trauma and remained elevated during the study period. Insulin administration significantly increased IL-2 levels at 5 and 7 days after trauma when compared to saline controls (p < 0.05). (b) Serum IL-4 was found to be decreased after burn compared to normal levels. Insulin treatment, however, significantly increased IL-4 levels at 5 and 7 days after trauma compared to saline controls and approached normal levels (p < 0.05). (c) Serum IL-10 was increased 4-fold posttrauma in the saline control and insulin group. Insulin increased serum IL-10 at days 2, 5, and 7 after burn compared to controls (p < 0.05). *Significant difference between insulin and control (p < 0.05). Data are presented as means ± SEM.