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Fig. 1 | Molecular Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Effects of radiation on the metastatic process

Fig. 1

Molecular pathways regulating cellular activities implicated in radiation -enhanced invasion and metastasis. Modified after Zhai et al., (2006b), Chargari et al., (2013), He et al., (2015b) and Lee et al., (2017b), with data from: Ahmed et al., (2013b); Asuthkar et al., (2011); Bastos et al., (2014); Chang et al., 2013b; Cheng et al., (2006b); Cho et al., (2016b); Cui et al., (2015b); de Marcondes (2017); Dong et al., (2015b); Eke & Cordes, (2015b); Fujita et al., (2014b); Fujita et al., (2015c); Gu et al., (2015b); He et al., (2015b); Ho et al., (2010b); Kang et al., (2013); Yan et al., (2013b); Kim et al., (2016); Kuo et al., (2015b); Liu et al., (2014b); Park et al., (2006b); Pichard et al., (2011b); Rajput et al., (2015b); Yuan et al., (2015b); Zhai et al., (2006b); Zhou et al., (2011b). Green, red and white boxes are secretory, transmembrane receptor and intracellular signaling molecules respectively. The glowing box is a mitochondrion; the double line is DNA. Abbreviations: Akt, protein kinase B; AP1, activator protein 1; BclxL, B-cell lymphoma-extra large; Bmi-1, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1; β-CTN, beta-catenin; CRK, CT10 regulator of kinase; CXCL12, C-X-C motif chemokine 12; CXCR4, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4; Dlx-2, distal-less homeobox-2; ECM, extracellular matrix; EGF, epidermal growth factor; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; EphA4, ephrin A 4; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; GAB1, GRB2-associated-binding protein; GADD45a, Growth Arrest and DNA Damage inducible Alpha; GCSF, granulocyte colony stimulating factor; GCSFR, granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor; GIRDIN, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein α subunit -interacting vesicle-associated protein; Gli1, Glioma-associated oncogen; GRB2, Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2; GSK3β, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; HIF-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor; IL-6, interleukin 6; ILK, integrin-linked kinase; JAK, Janus kinase; LAP-β1, latency-associated peptide of TGF-β; MEK, mitogen-activated kinase kinase; MET, tyrosine-protein kinase Met; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; mTOR, mechanistic target of rapamycin; NF-κB, nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell; Nrf2, Nuclear factor E2 related factor 2; NSB1, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1; p53, Tumor protein p53; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; PAK1, p21- activated kinase 1; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog; Rac, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate; RACK1, receptor for activated C kinase 1; RAF, Rapid Accelerated Fibrosarcoma; RAP, Ras-proximate; RAS, Rat sarcoma; RhoA, Ras homolog gene family member A; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; Src, sarcoma family kinase; SMAD, small and mothers against decapentaplegic; Smo, Smoothened; SOS, Son of Sevenless; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TCF, T-cell factor; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta; TKB-1, tank-binding kinase-1; TSP1, Trombospondin 1; TβRII, TGF-β type II receptor; Wnt, Wingless-related integration site; ZEP1, Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobo× 1

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