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Table 1 In vitro and in vivo experiments investigating the influence of irradiation on angiogenesis

From: Effects of radiation on the metastatic process

Radiation    Vessel origin Host Result   Molecular Ref
Target Mode Dose    Type IR/Ctrl   
Endothelial cells
  C-ion 0.1–8 Gy HUVEC Transwell chamber Migration < 1 αvβ3; MMP-2 (Takahashi et al., 2003)
     Collagen Tube formation < 1   
  kV 0.1–8 Gy   Transwell chamber   > 1   
     Collagen Tube formation 1   
  nm 4 Gy HUVEC Matrigel Tube formation 0.8 αvβ3 (Abdollahi et al., 2005)
  nm 8 Gy HMEC Matrigel Invasion 1   (Kaliski et al., 2005)
  250 kV 6 Gy HUVEC Tissue culture plastic Wound healing migration 4 eNOS (Sonveaux et al., 2003)
    HUVEC Matrigel Tube formation    
  137 Cs 3 Gy HUVEC Matrigel Tube formation 0.8 αvβ3 (Albert et al., 2006)
  125 kV 15 Gy HUVEC Tissue culture plastic Wound healing migration 0.6   (Imaizumi et al., 2010)
  6 MV 0.5 Gy HUVEC   Wound healing migration > 1 VEGFR (Sofia Vala et al., 2010)
Cancer cells
  6MV 10 Gy HUVEC Transwell/CM C6 Chemotactic migration 2 MMP-2 & -9 (Parthymou et al., 2004)
  6 MV 10 Gy CAM CAM/C6 angiogenesis > 1   (Parthymou et al., 2004)
    HUVEC Matrigel/PC3 Invasion 1.9   (Abdollahi et al., 2005)
   8 Gy HMEC Matrigel/CM B16 Invasion 2.4 MMP-2 (Kaliski et al., 2005)
  150 kV 10 Gy HMEC Matrigel/CM IOMM Tube formation 1.4 uPA (Kargiotis et al., 2008)
  nm 8 Gy HMEC T. c. plastic/CM U251 Branching 1.4 MMP-2 (Badiga et al., 2011)
  15 MV 18 Gy HUVEC Transwell/CM CAF Migration 0.6   (Hellevik et al., 2013)
    HUVEC Matrigel/CM CAF Tube formation 1   (Hellevik et al., 2013)
Inoculation site
  50 kV 19 Gy CAM CAM/C6 Angiogenesis > 1(48 h)   (Polytarchou et al., 2004)
  6 MV 2 Gy SCID mouse subcutis HepG2 Micro-vessel density > 1 VEGF  
  125 kV 20 Gy C57/Bl subcutis Matrigel plus FGF2 Micro-vessel density 0.36 FGF2 (Imaizumi et al., 2010)
     Matrigel plus VEGF Micro-vessel density 0.11 VEGF  
  6 MV 0.5 Gy nude mouse subcutis Matrigel plus FGF2 Angiogenesis > 1   (Sofia Vala et al., 2010)
  125 kV 20 Gy mammary fat pad. Mammary/AT1 Micro-vessel density 0.44   (Kuonen et al., 2012b)
Total body
  220 kV 15 Gy C57/Bl aortic Tissue culture plastic Sprouting 0.11 TGFΙβ (Imaizumi et al., 2010)
  6 MV 0.5 Gy zebra fish Embryo Angiogenesis > 1   (Sofia Vala et al., 2010)
  250 kV 6 Gy C57/Bl6 subcutis LLC Micro-vessel density > 1   (Sonveaux et al., 2003)
  6MV 8 Gy C57/BL6 cerebrum ALTS1C1 Micro-vessel density > 1   (Wang et al., 2013)
    SCID mouse subcutis SW410 Micro-vessel density 2   (Timaner et al., 2015)
  1. Abbreviations: avb3, integrin; ALTS1C1, SV40 large T-transformed astrocytes; B16, mouse melanoma cells; C57/BL, mouse strain; C6, rat glioma cells; CAF, cancer-associated fibroblasts; CAM, chick chorioallantoic membrane; C-ion, carbon ion; CM, conditioned medium; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; FGF2, fibroblast growth factor 2; HepG2, human hepatoma cells; HMEC, human microvascular endothelial cells; HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; IR/Ctrl, irradiated over unirradiated control target; IOMM, human meningioma cells; LLC, Lewis lung cancer cells; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; MVD, microvessel density; nm, not mentioned; PC3, human prostate cancer cells; pcb, polycarbonate transwell chamber; SW410, human colon carcinoma cells; t.c., tissue culture; TGFb, transforming growth factor beta; U252, human glioma cells; uPA, urokinase-type plasminogen activator; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; WH, wound healing