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Fig. 1 | Molecular Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Novel targeted therapies for Parkinson’s disease

Fig. 1

Potential neuroprotective mechanisms of novel targeted therapies in Parkinson’s disease.

AAV adeno-associated virus, AP area postrema, A2AR adenosine A2A receptor, Cd caudate nucleus, DA cell dopaminergic cell, DBS deep brain stimulation, dMSN direct pathway medium spiny neurons, D1R dopamine D1 receptor; D2R dopamine D2 receptor; GAD glutamate decarboxylase; GCase glucocerebrosidase, GDNF glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, GLP1R glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, GPe globus pallidus externa, GPi globus pallidus interna, iMSN indirect pathway medium spiny neurons; KI kinase inhibitor, LB lewy body, LRRK2 leukine-rich repeat kinase 2, MG microglia, NM neuromelanin; PrCG pre-central gyus, Pu putamen; SNC substantia nigra pars compacta, SNR substantia nigra pars reticulata, STN subthalamic nucleus, TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation

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