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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of trauma patients stratified according to trauma severity and detectable IL-33

From: Rapid systemic surge of IL-33 after severe human trauma: a prospective observational study

   NISS < 9 NISS 9–24 NISS > 24 p-value*
IL-33neg IL-33pos
  n 17 44 51 24 IL-33neg vs pos
Age Years 35 (26–46) 36 (28–49) 44 (29–62) 39.5 (22–61) 0.2609
Male gender n (%) 12 (71) 34 (77) 38 (75) 17 (71) 0.6024
Time after injury of first sample Hours 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 1.1 (0.6–1.4) 1.7 (1.1–2.5) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 0.0119
Penetrating trauma n (%) 2 (12) 8 (18) 8 (16) 0 (0) 0.049
Major head trauma n (%) 0 (0) 7 (16) 36 (71) 16 (67) 0.7913
Isolated major head trauma n (%) 0 (0) 5 (11) 12 (24) 0 (0) 0.0072
NISS Score 2 (1–5) 14 (10–19) 41 (34–57) 49 (41–59) 0.3390
ISS Score 2 (1–5) 10 (9–14) 29 (21–38) 42 (29–50) 0.0278
Number of ISS regions affected Number 1 (1–2) 2 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 5 (4–5) 0.0001
Injury to ISS region:
 Head or neck n (%) 7 (41) 12 (27) 36 (71) 18 (75) 0.7873
 Face n (%) 1 (6) 10 (23) 22 (43) 6 (25) 0.2004
 Chest n (%) 0 (0) 19 (42) 28 (55) 21 (88) 0.0084
 Abdominal or pelvic contents n (%) 0 (0) 7 (15) 10 (20) 21 (88)  < 0.0001
 Extremities or pelvic girdle n (%) 3 (18) 19 (43) 26 (51) 21 (88) 0.0023
 External n (%) 12 (71) 34 (77) 43 (84) 23 (96) 0.2566
aPTT§ Sec 32 (31–35) 30 (29–33) 32 (29–36) 43 (38–75)  < 0.0001
aPTT > 35§ n (%) 4 (24) 8 (19) 14 (28) 19 (83)  < 0.0001
INRll Ratio 1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 1.2 (1.1–1.4)  < 0.0001
INR > 1.2ll n (%) 0 (0) 3 (7) 2 (4.1) 9 (39.1) 0.0003
Coagulopathic (INR > 1.5 and/or aPTT > 60) n (%) 0 (0) 1 (2.3) 2 (4.1) 7 (30.4) 0.0037
Transfusion of PRBC Units 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 1.5 (0–10) 0.0004
Base excess** mmol/L − 2 (0–− 3.1) − 1.9 (− 0.9–− 4.2) − 3.4 (− 1.6–− 6.3) − 6.2 (− 3.7–− 13.7) 0.0306
CK maximum first 48 h U/L 201 (128–574) 435 (217–1356) 1254 (284–3606) 1933 (483–5398) 0.2286
LDH maximum first 48 h U/L 242 (202–281) 369 (198–543) 320 (273–415) 599 (416–960) 0.0009
  1. All data presented as median (with quartiles) or number of patients (%)
  2. *Analysed by Kruskal–Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison test or by χ2/Fisher’s exact test as appropriate with p values presented in bold italics if p < 0.05
  3. Defined as AIS score ≥ 3 in ISS region Head or neck
  4. Defined as major head trauma with no registered injuries to ISS regions Chest, Abdominal or pelvic contents, or Extremities or pelvic girdle
  5. §3 patients excluded from analysis due to known anticoagulant treatment prior to injury and 3 patients excluded due to no aPTT test performed at admission
  6. ll3 patients excluded from analysis due to known anticoagulant treatment prior to injury and 1 patient excluded due to no INR test performed at admission
  7. **9 patients excluded from analysis due to no test performed at admission
  8. NISS New Injury Severity Score; ISS Injury Severity Score; aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time; INR International Normalized Ratio; PRBC packed red blood cells; CK creatine kinase; LDH lactate dehydrogenase