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Table 1 Heterologous effects of vaccination

From: Heterologous vaccine interventions: boosting immunity against future pandemics

Vaccine Heterologous or non-specific effects References
Vaccinia Positive effects in papillomas, chronic skin disorders, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough and syphilis. Reduced risk of infectious disease hospitalization. Protection against HIV-1. (Mayr 2004)
(Sørup et al. 2011)
(Weinstein et al. 2010)
BCG Decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. Reduced childhood mortality due to respiratory infections and sepsis
Reduction in pneumonia and in acute upper respiratory tract infections
Protection against influenza virus, yellow fever virus, herpes simplex viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human papilloma virus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia pestis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Schistosoma mansoni.
(Rieckmann et al. 2017)
(Higgins et al. 2016)
(De Castro et al. 2015)
(Ohrui et al. 2005)
(Wardhana et al. 2011)
(Moorlag et al. 2019)
(Blok et al. 2015)
Measles Reduced childhood mortality from infectious causes. Reduced nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae (Aaby et al. 1995)
(Bottomley et al. 2015)
Oral polio Reduced childhood mortality from infectious causes. (Andersen et al. 2018)
Inactivated Influenza Protection against parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus and non-influenza virus coinfections. (Wolff 2020)
Yellow fever Reduced nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae. (Bottomley et al. 2015)