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Table 1 Potential regulators of IL-22 expression and production in atherosclerosis

From: Interleukin-22: a potential therapeutic target in atherosclerosis

Molecules Type of regulation Transcription factor Pathway Potential role in AS References
IL-23 Positive STAT3, NF-κB IL-23/IL-23R, PI3K/Akt, IκB-α Promotes inflammatory responses Sano et al. 2015; Cho et al. 2006)
IL-7 Positive RORγt IL-7/IL-7R Promotes inflammatory responses Vonarbourg et al. 2010; Sekimata et al. 2019)
AhR Positive Notch/FICZ Promotes inflammatory responses and cholesterol accumulation Qiu et al. 2012; Veldhoen et al. 2008)
IL-1β Positive AHR IL-1β/IL-1R1 Promotes inflammatory responses and VSMC proliferation and migration Sutton et al. 2009; Hughes et al. 2010)
Notch Positive AhR, RBP‐J, STAT3 Notch-Hes1 Promotes inflammatory responses, endothelial dysfunction, and angiogenesis Rankin et al. 2013; Mielke et al. 2013; Murano et al. 2014)
TGF-β Negative c-Maf TGF-β signaling Suppresses angiogenesis, VSMC proliferation and migration, inflammation, and cholesterol accumulation Rutz et al. 2011; Volpe et al. 2009; Penel-Sotirakis et al. 2012)
IL-27 Negative SOCS1, c-Maf Jak/STAT signaling Suppresses inflammatory responses Wang et al. 2013; Pot et al. 2009)
IL-38 Negative IL-38- IL-36R Suppresses inflammatory responses Veerdonk et al. 2012; Tortola et al. 2012)
IL-25 Negative STAT3 p38 MAPK/IκBα Suppresses inflammatory responses Min et al. 2020)
  1. – Not determined, AS atherosclerosis