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Table 1 NRs in the crosstalk of gut microbiome-host system

From: Nuclear receptors: a bridge linking the gut microbiome and the host

NRs Mechanism Diseases and phenotype References
FXR Tempol → Lactobacillus↓,
BSH↓ → T-β-MCA↑ → inhibition of FXR
Obesity Li et al. (2013)
Gut microbiome → FXR → FGF15/19 or CYP7A1 Multi-Metabolic diseases Al-Khaifi et al. (2018); Degirolamo et al. (2014); Gonzalez et al. (2016); Sayin et al. (2013)
Gut microbiome → FXR → 
Diet-induced obesity
Obesity Parséus et al. (2017)
FXR↓ → ceramide↓ → 
SREBP-1C↓ → 
lipid metabolism↓, Obesity↓
Obesity, NAFLD Gonzalez et al. (2016); Jiang et al. (2015)
FEX → FXR → TGR5 → GLP-1 → improving glucose & insulin tolerance T2D Albaugh et al. (2019); Pathak et al. (2018)
FXR↓ → butyrate producers in gut microbiome↓ NAFLD Sheng et al. (2017)
Gut microbiome → primary BAs change to secondary BAs → FXR-FGF pathway IBD, NAFLD Jiao et al. (2018)
PPARs Prevotella and Atopobium → SCFAs → ERK1/2-PPARγ → ANGPTL4↑, ADRP↑ Epithelial damage Nepelska et al. (2017)
Bacteroides → insulin sensitive regulation glucose metabolism Yang et al. (2017)
PPARα → IL-22, RegIIIβ, RegIIIγ Gut mucosal immunity Manoharan et al. (2016)
Lactic acid bacteria → ALA → GPCR40 → microphage M2 differentiation Gut mucosal immunity Ohue-Kitano et al. (2018)
Microbiome → lack of butyrate → absence of PPARγ signal → nitrate and lactate accumulate → exogenous infection IBD, NAFLD Byndloss et al. (2017); Gillis et al. (2018)
L.casei Zhang → TLR-MAPK-PPARγ → inflammation↓ Liver inflammation Wang et al. (2016b)
AHR Ethanol → IAA-AHR-IL-22-REG3G pathway → gut bacteria transfer Liver inflammation Hendrikx et al. (2018)
Trp metabolism → CARD9-AHR-IL-22 IBD Lamas et al. (2017)
Gut microbiome → CD4+-LAG3 pathway CNS immunity Kadowaki et al. (2016)
AHR → RORγ + group 3 ILC IBD Qiu and Zhou (2013)
ILC → inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2)-AHR-IL-22 pathway or T cell IBD Guo et al. (2015); Wagage et al. (2015)
Urolithin A → AHR-Nrf2 pathway Gut barrier integrity Singh et al. (2019)
gut microbiome → Trp metabolism → indole derivatives → AHR-IL-22 signal → antifungal resistance and mucosal protection Gut mucosal reactivity Zelante et al. (2013)
Purinergic metabolism → AHR-CD39 pathway Immune metabolism Longhi et al. (2017)
VDR VD-VDR → NF-κB, MAPKs, TLR, EGFR, TJ pathways IBD, Eystic fibrosis Kanhere et al. (2018); Wu et al. (2010); Yoon and Sun (2011)
VDR → Th1, Th17 cell Mucosa inflammation, Epithelium cell apoptosis He et al. (2018)
Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Vitamin K2 → VDR → AMPK signaling pathway Colon cancer Zhang et al. (2017)
VDR → ATG16L1 → autophagy IBD, autophagy Jin et al. (2015)