Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of survivor and non-survivor COVID-19 patients at ICU admission

From: Syndecan-1, an indicator of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, predicts outcome of patients admitted to an ICU with COVID-19

  Total (N = 49) COVID-19 patients P
Non-survivors (N = 35) Survivors (N = 14)
Age, years 65.0 (56.5–72.0) (49) 65.0 (59.0–73.0) (35) 56.5 (53.8–70.8) (14) 0.020
Gender
 Male/female 65.3% (32/49)/34.7% (17/49) 74.3% (26/35)/25.7% (9/35) 42.9% (6/14)/57.1% (8/14) 0.079
Comorbidities/condition
 Smoking 10.2% (5/49) 11.4% (4/35) 7.1% (1/14) 1.000
 Hypertension 49.0% (24/49) 48.6% (17/35) 50.0% (7/14) 0.928
 Diabetes 16.3% (8/49) 11.4% (4/35) 28.6% (4/14) 0.299
 Cardiovascular disease 24.5% (12/49) 25.7% (9/35) 21.4% (3/14) 1.000
 Cerebrovascular disease 14.3% (7/49) 11.4% (4/35) 21.4% (3/14) 0.651
 Chronic lung disease 4.1% (2/49) 5.7% (2/35) 0.0% (0/14) 1.000
 Chronic kidney disease 6.1% (3/49) 2.9% (1/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.193
 Chronic liver disease 2.0% (1/49) 2.9% (1/35) 0.0% (0/14) 1.000
 Anemia 4.1% (2/49) 0.0% (0/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.077
 Malignance 4.1% (2/49) 5.7% (2/35) 0.0% (0/14) 1.000
 Autoimmune diseases 2.0% (1/49) 0.0% (0/35) 7.1% (1/14) 0.286
Symptoms and signs
 Fever 85.7% (42/49) 85.7% (30/35) 85.7% (12/14) 1.000
 Fatigue 55.1% (27/49) 57.1% (20/35) 50.0% (7/14) 0.650
 Dyspnea 61.2% (30/49) 68.6% (24/35) 42.9% (6/14) 0.095
 Cough 69.4% (34/49) 68.6% (24/35) 71.4% (10/14) 1.000
 Sputum 55.1% (27/49) 54.3% (19/35) 57.1% (8/14) 0.856
 Pharyngeal pain 14.3% (7/49) 17.1% (6/35) 7.1% (1/14) 0.651
 Abdominal pain 24.5% (12/49) 28.6% (10/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.495
 Diarrhea 30.6% (15/49) 37.1% (13/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.220
 Headache 20.4% (10/49) 25.7% (9/35) 7.1% (1/14) 0.287
 Dizziness 8.2% (4/49) 11.4% (4/35) 0.0% (0/14) 0.458
 Nausea 28.6% (14/49) 34.3% (12/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.294
 Vomiting 24.5% (12/49) 28.6% (10/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.495
 Anorexia 20.4% (10/49) 25.7% (9/35) 7.1% (1/14) 0.287
 Myalgia 20.4% (10/49) 22.9% (8/35) 14.3% (2/14) 0.779
Disease severity status
 Severe/Critically severe 22.4% (11/49)/77.6% (38/49) 0.0% (0/35)/100.0% (35/35) 78.8% (11/14)/21.4% (3/14)  < 0.001
Treatment
 MV 66.7% (32/48) 85.3% (29/34) 21.4% (3/14)  < 0.001
  Invasive MV 90.6% (29/32) 89.7% (26/29) 100% (3/3) 1.000
  PEEP (cm H2O) 12.0 (10.0–14.0) (29) 12.0 (10.0–14.0) (26) 14.0 (NA) (3) 0.948
  PaCO2 (mmHg) 49.0 (42.0–58.8) (28) 49.0 (42.0–58.5) (21) 49.0 (47.0–64.0) (7) 0.876
  Oxygenation index (mmHg) 135.5 (84.2–276.5) (23) 117.9 (79.4–197.1) (19) 311.7 (286.5–356.8) (4) 0.010
  Lactate (mmol/L) 21.0 (7.0–34.0) (16) 23.0 (15.5–34.0) (12) 7.0 (5.0–33.0) (4) 0.350
  1. Bold values indicate statistical significance
  2. Data are presented as median (Q1–Q3) (N) or % (n/N)
  3. COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; MV, mechanical ventilation; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; PaCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide