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Table 1 Representative examples of the synergistic and reprogrammed genes regulated by the 2′,3′,4′-THC/E2 combination from the U2OS-ERα microarrays

From: 2′,3′,4′-Trihydroxychalcone changes estrogen receptor α regulation of genes and breast cancer cell proliferation by a reprogramming mechanism

Gene name Gene symbol Accession 2′,3′,4′- THC E2 2′,3′,4′- THC + E2
Synergistic genes Fold change
 Tubulin, alpha 3d TUBA3D NM_080386.1 0.9 40.95 485.88
 Otoferlin OTOF NM_194248.1 1.55 12.19 157.79
 Keratin 19 KRT19 NM_002276.3 1.0 17.67 84.18
 PRAME family member 4 PRAMEF4 NM_001009611.1 1.17 8.46 48.77
 Tyrosine hydroxylase TH NM_000360.2 1.16 9.03 45.45
 Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor, 2 GABBR2 NM_005458.5 1.54 3.86 41.30
 Microseminoprotein, beta- MSMB NM_002443.2 1.14 3.06 27.84
 Neurofilament, heavy polypeptide 200 kDa NEFH NM_021076.2 1.03 3.68 26.59
 Zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 ZSCAN4 NM_152677.1 0.82 5.23 16.21
 Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3-like 2 MBD3L2 NM_144614.2 1.15 5.60 14.49
Reprogrammed genes    
 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 3 ABCA3 NM_001089.1 1.24 1.85 53.37
 Gardner-Rasheed Feline Sarcoma Viral (V- Fgr) Oncogene Homolog FGR NM_001042729.1 1.01 1.07 41.92
 Keratin 73 K6IRS3 NM_175068.2 1.19 1.17 37.33
 Cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 11 CYP4F11 NM_021187.2 1.12 1.45 29.66
 Mucin 1, cell surface associated MUC1 NM_001044390.1 1.18 1.44 19.14
 S100 calcium binding protein A9 S100A9 NM_002965.2 1.26 1.72 18.71
 Potassium channel, subfamily K, member 6 KCNK6 NM_004823.1 0.98 0.96 15.88
 Cystatin SN CST1 NM_001898.2 0.93 1.48 15.38
 Ubiquitin D UBD NM_006398.2 1.00 0.93 11.16
 Neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor NGEF NM_019850.1 1.13 1.70 10.96
  1. The synergistic genes were regulated by E2 alone and the addition of 2′,3′,4′-THC produced a greater activation than the sum of the response by E2 and 2′,3′,4′-THC alone. The reprogrammed genes were not regulated by E2 or 2′,3′,4′-THC alone, but were activated by the 2′,3′,4′-THC/E2 combination. U2OS-ERα cells were treated with 10 nM E2 or 5 μM 2′,3′,4′-THC alone or in combination for 24 h as described in the Methods. The fold change for the gene is the average of triplicate microarrays with a p-value ≤ 0.05 for each treatment