Inhibition of IL-6 by ITF2357 is independent of IL-1 β and TNFα. Left panel depicts the dose-response inhibition of IL-18/IL-12-induced IL-6 by increasing concentrations of ITF2357. Freshly isolated PBMCs were preincubated with ITF2357 for 1 h. The combination of IL-18/IL-12 was added for an additional 20 h, and IL-6 was measured in the supernatants. Matching cultures were similarly stimulated in the presence of IL-1Ra (10 µg/mL, middle panel) or TNF-bp (1 µg/mL, right panel). Data are mean ± SEM of IL-6 in ng/mL of 4 donors. *P < 0.05; *P < 0.01 compared with no ITF2357.