Skip to main content

Table 1 Transcription Factors Analyzed

From: Transcription Factors in Muscle Atrophy Caused by Blocked Neuromuscular Transmission and Muscle Unloading In Rats

Transcription factor Family Involved in
NFATc1 NFAT family Activated by increased intracellular levels of Ca2 +. Promotes slow muscle gene program. (15).
MEF2 MADS box transcription factor Act together with myogenin and MRF4 to sustain the muscle differentiation program (16). Binding site in mouse MyHC IIb (17).
NFκB p65 (RelA) Subunit in the NFκB-family Involved in muscle atrophy. Activates MuRF1 (3). The NFκB molecules are dimeric complexes containing various combinations of p50, p52, p65, RelB, and c-Rel [reviewed in (18)].
Bcl-3 IκB-family Primarily nuclear localization. Binds p50 and p52 homodimers, which normally repress transcription. These complexes can also activate transcription (12,19).
MyoD MRF Skeletal muscle development. Initiation of muscle cell program. Controls expression of transcription factors, cell cycle regulators as well as muscle structural genes [reviewed in (20)].
Myogenin MRF Skeletal muscle development. Muscle differentiation. Mediates activity-dependent control of AchR gene expression (21).
Myf-5 MRF Skeletal muscle development. Initiation of muscle cell program. One of the earliest markers of myogenic commitment (22).
MRF4 (Myf-6) MRF Skeletal muscle development. Muscle differentiation. Involved in expression of the adult Na channel (23).
Foxo1 (FKHR) Forkhead box family Downstream effector of the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway. Reduced levels of IGF-1 activate Foxo transcription factors, which induce MuRF1 and MAFbx gene expression (24).
TRα1 Thyroid hormone receptor Involved in determining MyHC isoforms. Tra-1-deficient mice display a switch toward more MyHC type I (25).
GR Glucocorticoid receptor Glucocorticoids are involved in muscle atrophy, probably via activation of GR. Can repress other transcription factors, eg, AP-1, NFκB, and Smad3 [reviewed in (26)].
Oct-1 POU homeo-domain family Binding site in mouse MyHC IIb promoter (17,27) and possibly also in Myf-5 promoters of bovine and avian muscle (28).
Egr-3 Human zinc-finger protein A member of the immediate-early transcription factors involved in cellular growth and differentiation. Interacts with NFκB p65 and NFAT in T cells, and controls transcription of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines (29).