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Table 1 Comparison of the range of cadmium levels in blood and seminal plasma among three populations of men.a

From: Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

Cadmium source Subjects n/n′ Median Interquartile range Minimum Maximum Kruskal-Wallis test P value
Blood plasma        
  Group 1: infertility patients
Group 2: AI donors
Group 3: general population volunteers
91/91
14/23
35/37
0.748b
0.112
0.099
0.545–0.748
0.096–0.126
0.095–0.124
0.132
0.065
0.063
\(\left. {\matrix{ {0.944} \cr {0.161} \cr {0.145} \cr } } \right\}\) <0.001
Seminal plasma        
  Group 1: infertility patients
Group 2: AI donors
Group 3: general population volunteers
132/225
14/53
35/76
0.282b
0.091
0.092
0.241–0.348
0.073–0.102
0.080–0.111
0.091
0.039
0.039
\(\left. {\matrix{ {0.692} \cr {0.190} \cr {0.163} \cr } } \right\}\) <0.001
  1. aSamples were assayed in triplicate for cadmium and lead by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results are presented in micrograms per liter. n′ = Total number of observations.
  2. bPairwise comparisons obtained using Dunn’s method indicate that the range of cadmium levels in IVF patients differed significantly from the other two populations.