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Table 1 Overview of studies describing the role of the sympathetic nervous system using adrenergic receptor drug intervention in experimental animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.

From: Restoring the Balance of the Autonomic Nervous System as an Innovative Approach to the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Effect on SNS Intervention Arthritis model Time point start intervention Effect on arthritis Authors
Single interventions
Catecholamine depletion ADMXa AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Decreased severity (22)
  Systemic CIA (DBA/1 mice) Prior to immunization Reduced severity (35)
  sympathectomy     
  (6-OHDA)     
  Systemic CIA (DBA/1 mice) After disease onset, Increased severity (35)
  sympathectomy   during active disease   
  (6-OHDA)     
  Reserpine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Reduced severity + delayed onset (23)
  Reserpine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (23)
  Reserpine (intraarticular injection) CIA (DBA/1 mice) After disease onset, during active disease Reduced severity in injected joint (41)
α1-AR antagonist Prazosin AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (22,33)
α2-AR agonist Clonidine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Reduced severity (33)
  NE (high dose) AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Reduced severity (33)
α2-AR antagonist Yohimbine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (23)
  Yohimbine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Increased severity (33)
α-AR antagonist Phentolamine AIA (Lewis rats) At time of immunization Increased severity (24)
   AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (24)
  Phenoxybenzamine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (23)
β1-AR antagonist Metoprolol AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (23)
β2-AR agonist Terbutaline AIA (Lewis rats) At time of immunization Increased severity (24)
   AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (24)
  Salbutamol CIA (DBA/1 mice) After disease onset, during active arthritis Reduced severity (34)
   AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (33)
β2-AR antagonists Butoxamine or ICI 118,551 AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Reduced severity + delayed onset (23)
  Butoxamine AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (23)
β1/β2-AR agonist Isoproterenol AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization No effect (33)
β-AR antagonist Propanolol AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Reduced severity (23)
Combined interventions
α- and β-AR agonists + α1-AR antagonist NE and prazosin AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (NE effect) (33)
α- and β-AR agonists + α2-AR antagonist NE and yohimbine AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Increased severity (combined effect) (33)
α- and β-AR agonists + β1-antagonist NE and metopropolol AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (NE effect) (33)
α- and β-AR agonists + β2-AR antagonist NE and butoxamine AIA (Lewis rats) At disease onset Reduced severity (NE effect) (33)
Catecholamine depletion + administration (α-AR and β-AR agonists) ADMX and NE AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Increased severity compared with ADMX (22)
Catecholamine depletion + β2-AR agonist ADMX and salbutamol AIA (Sprague-Dawley rats) Prior to immunization Increased severity compared with ADMX (22)
  1. aADMX = adrenal medullectomy.